Bolivian Music

The music of Bolivia has a long history. Out of all the Andean countries, Bolivia remains perhaps the most culturally linked to the indigenous peoples. Like most of its neighbors, Bolivia was long dominated by Spain and its attendant culture. Even after independence, Bolivian music was largely based on European forms. In 1952, a revolution established nationalistic reforms which included cultural and political awareness of the Aymara, Quechua, Guarani, and many other ethnic groups (more than 30). Bolivia is a very diverse country (geographically, culturally, and ethnically), this diversity is expressed also in the kind of music that is played in every region. In the Andean region of La Paz, Oruro, and Potosi, musicians have created beautiful tunes called Sicuriada, Tonada, Tinku, etc. Some of the musical groups that play these kinds of tunes are Wara, Aymara, Altiplano, Rhupay, Kanata, Paja Brava, Markasata, etc. The Andean instruments used are zampoña, sicus, pinquillo, quena, charango, tarka, toyos, pututu, huancara, reco reco, Andean saxophone, and drums. In the Valley region of Cochabamba, Chuquisaca, and Tarija; Cueca, Huayño, Bailecito, Kullawada, Chacarera, etc are the music; the instruments to create these melodies are charango, quena, guitar, charangón, hualaycho, zampoña, drums, sheep hooves formed into a kind of shaker, violin, and accordion; the musical groups of this style of music are Savia Andina, Los K’jarkas, Kalamarka, Taricanto, Canarios del Chaco, and many others. In the Tropical regions of Santa Cruz, Beni, and Pando are played Taquirari, Cumbia, Chacarera,Toritos, etc; the instruments utilized are violin, guitar, drum, cornet, horn, and accordion. Las Cambitas, Trio Oriental, Los Benianos, Los del Pirai, etc are the most representative musical groups. In the African Bolivian region (Yungas); Saya, Semba, Lament, Tuntuna, Taki Taki are the kinds of music; the instruments to create these tunes are drums, timbales, and ronroco. In the Amazon region (east part of the country) is cultivated the Baroque music. And in general, the urban areas of the country are the places of many kinds of musical expressions; classical, Andean jazz, Latin rock, pop, cumbia, samba, etc.